Monday, 7 July 2014

Literature Review

These are the literature reviews we did to support the research question we had selected and generated the last post.



(Charging a phone with AA batteries)
Marco Arment (2010)  reported that he managed to charge his phone with AA batteries.To test them in his iPhone 4, he discharged it to 20% (when the low-battery warning dialog pops up), then charged it back up to 100% or as far as it would go until the voltage was too low to keep charging the iPhone.This was not perfectly isolated, since he left the radios on and occasionally used the phone lightly during the tests. The numbers are meant to be estimates. He also reported that the highest amount of charge cycles he could get was 2.20 from the Energizer Ultimate Lithium before the battery ran out. (Marco Arment 2010)

(Battery life)
Josiah Willard Gibbs (1873) reported that the greatest amount of mechanical work which can be obtained from a given quantity of a certain substance in a given initial state, without increasing its total volume or allowing heat to pass to or from external bodies, except such as at the close of the processes are left in their initial condition. Later testing proved that the substance, rochelle salts lasted 10 years because the crystals grew too big. (Josiah Willard Gibbs 1873)


(Space needed changes with growth stage of plant)
Jill MacKenzie (2014) wrote that the spacing between basil plants vary from which stage of germination it is at. After spring frost has passed, she recommended that basil plants to be sown evenly into the ground, waiting for germination to take place with the seedlings growing 2-3 pairs of true leaves. Once that has happened, they are to be thinned or transplanted to stand 6-12 inches apart (Jill MacKenzie, 2014).

(Space needed depends on species of Basil)
Steve Masley (2013) recommended that Genovese and Thai Basils should be planted 10 inches (25 cm) apart and smaller varieties of basil planted 6 to 8 inches (15 to 20 cm) apart (Steve Masley, 2013).

(Space needed depends on location of Basil)
Steve Masley (2013) recommended that on deep-dug or raised garden bed (with a soil depth of at least 18 inches, or 46 cm), plant Basil on 10 inch (25 cm) centers in staggered rows (Steve Masley, 2013).

(Changing the concentration of the concentration of zinc increases the voltage) 
Chempage netorials (n.d.) recorded that increasing the concentration of zinc ions will shift the equilibrium left, suppressing ionization and charge separation; this will decrease the potential difference between the electrode and the solution.

(changing of voltage of a crystal)
Department of Materials, University of Oxford(2014 May 28;43) recorded that In common with rocksalt-type alkali halide phases and also semiconductors such as GeTe and SnTe, SnSe forms all-surface two atom-thick low dimensional crystals when encapsulated within single walled nanotubes (SWNTs) with diameters below ∼1.4 nm. Whereas previous density functional theory (DFT) studies indicate that optimised low-dimensional trigonal HgTe changes from a semi-metal to a semi-conductor, low-dimensional SnSe crystals typically undergo band-gap expansion. In slightly wider diameter SWNTs (∼1.4-1.6 nm), we observe that three atom thick low dimensional SnSe crystals undergo a previously unobserved form of a shear inversion phase change resulting in two discrete strain states in a section of curved nanotube. Under low-voltage (i.e. 80-100 kV) imaging conditions in a transmission electron microscope, encapsulated SnSe crystals undergo longitudinal and rotational oscillations, possibly as a result of the increase in the inelastic scattering cross-section of the sample at those voltages.

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