Monday, 7 July 2014

Literature Review

These are the literature reviews we did to support the research question we had selected and generated the last post.

Enjoy!

Max:

(Charging a phone with AA batteries)
Marco Arment (2010)  reported that he managed to charge his phone with AA batteries.To test them in his iPhone 4, he discharged it to 20% (when the low-battery warning dialog pops up), then charged it back up to 100% or as far as it would go until the voltage was too low to keep charging the iPhone.This was not perfectly isolated, since he left the radios on and occasionally used the phone lightly during the tests. The numbers are meant to be estimates. He also reported that the highest amount of charge cycles he could get was 2.20 from the Energizer Ultimate Lithium before the battery ran out. (Marco Arment 2010)

(Battery life)
Josiah Willard Gibbs (1873) reported that the greatest amount of mechanical work which can be obtained from a given quantity of a certain substance in a given initial state, without increasing its total volume or allowing heat to pass to or from external bodies, except such as at the close of the processes are left in their initial condition. Later testing proved that the substance, rochelle salts lasted 10 years because the crystals grew too big. (Josiah Willard Gibbs 1873)

Ray:


(Space needed changes with growth stage of plant)
Jill MacKenzie (2014) wrote that the spacing between basil plants vary from which stage of germination it is at. After spring frost has passed, she recommended that basil plants to be sown evenly into the ground, waiting for germination to take place with the seedlings growing 2-3 pairs of true leaves. Once that has happened, they are to be thinned or transplanted to stand 6-12 inches apart (Jill MacKenzie, 2014).

(Space needed depends on species of Basil)
Steve Masley (2013) recommended that Genovese and Thai Basils should be planted 10 inches (25 cm) apart and smaller varieties of basil planted 6 to 8 inches (15 to 20 cm) apart (Steve Masley, 2013).

(Space needed depends on location of Basil)
Steve Masley (2013) recommended that on deep-dug or raised garden bed (with a soil depth of at least 18 inches, or 46 cm), plant Basil on 10 inch (25 cm) centers in staggered rows (Steve Masley, 2013).

Shiqiang
(Changing the concentration of the concentration of zinc increases the voltage) 
Chempage netorials (n.d.) recorded that increasing the concentration of zinc ions will shift the equilibrium left, suppressing ionization and charge separation; this will decrease the potential difference between the electrode and the solution.

(changing of voltage of a crystal)
Department of Materials, University of Oxford(2014 May 28;43) recorded that In common with rocksalt-type alkali halide phases and also semiconductors such as GeTe and SnTe, SnSe forms all-surface two atom-thick low dimensional crystals when encapsulated within single walled nanotubes (SWNTs) with diameters below ∼1.4 nm. Whereas previous density functional theory (DFT) studies indicate that optimised low-dimensional trigonal HgTe changes from a semi-metal to a semi-conductor, low-dimensional SnSe crystals typically undergo band-gap expansion. In slightly wider diameter SWNTs (∼1.4-1.6 nm), we observe that three atom thick low dimensional SnSe crystals undergo a previously unobserved form of a shear inversion phase change resulting in two discrete strain states in a section of curved nanotube. Under low-voltage (i.e. 80-100 kV) imaging conditions in a transmission electron microscope, encapsulated SnSe crystals undergo longitudinal and rotational oscillations, possibly as a result of the increase in the inelastic scattering cross-section of the sample at those voltages.
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Wednesday, 2 July 2014

Generating Research Questions

Generating Research Questions
Link to page: http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_question.shtml#keyinfo

In today's ISS lesson, we learned how to generate research questions with the help of sciencebuddies after reading their webpage (The link is located above.) 


Here are the research questions we generated:


Ray:

    1. How do batteries made from rochelle salt, copper and magnesium compare to regular batteries?
    2. Creating a portable, windowsill herb garden.
    3. Creating music box out of arduino system and crystal power.

        (More information about Arduino can be located here.)

            Shi Qiang:
            1. Can we concentrate the salt to make a higher voltage battery?
            2. Riding on Air—Build a Real Hovercraft: how does it work?
            3. Why do coke and mentos would explode when it goes together.

            Max:
            1. What can rochelle salts power?
            2. Is there enough power for the rochelle salts to charge a phone?
            3. How many batteries can we make at one go?
            Later on, we then made this for the selected research questions that we came up with:


            Name
            Research Question
            Independent
            Variable
            Dependent
            Variable
            Controlled
            Variable
            Hypothesis
            Ray
            Do herbs need a big space (7 gallons or more) to grow?
            Amount of space each plant is allocated.  
            1. Colour of plant.
            2. Height of plant.
            3. Appearance.
            4. Taste of herb.
            1. Amount of light received.
            2. Volume of water received.
            Herbs need to have plenty of space in order to grow properly.
            Shiqiang

            Can we concentrate the rochelle salt to make a higher voltage battery?
            the amount of concentration of the rochelle salts
            the amount of voltage
            the voltmeter
            the higher the concentration of the rochelle salts , the higher the voltage of the rochelle salts.
            Max
            Is there enough power for the rochelle salts to charge a phone
            How much percentage will it be charged by the battery
            How much batteries are needed
            The type of phone
            There is enough power to charge the phone to 100%

            *Note: This is not for generating our research project. This is part of our curriculum for our ISS subject.

            Monday, 30 June 2014

            Essential Questions & Our Answers

            What is Science?
            Here is what we think science is about:

            Max:

            Science is learning the diversity of our world to understand it better.

            Shi Qiang:
            A scientific method is a theory which have no rights and wrongs.

            Ray:
            To me, science is finding out how the world around us works

            So what is the official definition of Science?

            The Definition of Science


            From oxforddictionaries.com:
            The intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment.

            We weren't so far off after all!

            What is the Scientific Method?
            Such an important question must have an important answer. 

            Max:

            It is a way to find what you want in a fair and accurate way and learning something out of it.

            Shi Qiang:
            A scientific method is a way to find out things in life and other things in our environment.

            Ray:
            To ask a question, then do initial research about the topic your question concerns. Then come up with a hypothesis and test it. Record down your results then report your results. Then, form a conclusion. (It's a process.)

            But what do others say?

            From sciencebuddies.org:

            So we are partly correct. The scientific method is a process, used because it is methodical, logical, thorough and is fair. Thus, it's a pretty good way of finding a conclusion to a tricky question. 

            However, there is something more than the scientific method. Heard of the engineering method?

            This is the engineer's friend. It is the process of where engineers find a problem and create something to solve it. 

            And that is what we, Team Brandberg, is going to use in addition to the scientific theory! After all, we are building batteries.

            Sources:
            http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/science
            www.sciencebuddies.org